Getting water to the home is one thing, making sure that it is safe to drink and to use for cooking, washing and domestic purposes is quite another.  The advantage of groundwater sources is that the water often needs little or no treatment to be safe - however, it can get contaminated. The two main intervention treatment options are:

  • Household Water Treatment
  • Centralised Water Treatment for piped systems.

Water treatment should not been looked at on its own - because it adds costs, complexity and another thing to go wrong, it is often best avoided. Therefore, the starting point should be Water Safety Planning:

Household water treatment is closely associated with the RWSN theme 'Accelerating Self Supply', however, it has its own network because this topic is so complex:

HWTS includes:

Other good resources include:

Related Resources

HWTS & Markets / CTED & Marchés / TANDAS y Mercados

A well-functioning free market system is an important tool to support the growth of the Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) sector. This paper will establish a common understanding of the importance of HWTS markets and its components.
This paper also highlights seven key principles that HWTS players should follow to support HWTS markets and avoid undermining them through well-intentioned actions with unintended negative consequences.
Un système fonctionnel de marché libre constitue un outil important pour soutenir la croissance du secteur de la conservation et du traitement de l’eau à domicile (CTED). Cet article permettra d'établir une perception commune de l'importance des marchés de la CTED et de ses composantes.
Il définit également sept principes fondamentaux que les acteurs de la CTED doivent respecter pour soutenir les marchés de la CTED et éviter de les affaiblir par des actions bien intentionnées mais ayant des conséquences néfastes imprévues.
Un sistema de mercado libre que funcione correctamente es una herramienta importante para respaldar el crecimiento del sector del Tratamiento de agua a nivel domiciliario y su almacenamiento seguro (TANDAS). Este libro establecerá un entendimiento común de la importancia de los mercados de TANDAS y sus componentes.
Este libro también destaca siete principios clave que los actores del TANDAS deben seguir para respaldar los mercados de TANDAS y evitar debilitarlos mediante acciones de buenas intenciones con consecuencias negativas no deseadas. | »

Compendium of Water Supply Technologies in Emergencies

The Compendium of Water Supply Technologies in Emergencies offers a comprehensive and structured planning guide on new and existing technologies for water supply operations in humanitarian settings.
The target audience includes humanitarian staff, local first responders, engineers, planners, government representatives, capacity building agencies and other WASH professionals involved in humanitarian response. Although humanitarian WASH interventions primarily focus on immediate life-saving measures and protecting public health, the humanitarian community has been increasingly confronted with longer-term protracted crises that stretch beyond an emergency response. | »

Summary of RWSN E-discussion Responding to the Current COVID-19 Crisis: Questions, Resources, and Implications for Rural Water Supply at the Operational Level Répondre à la crise COVID-19 actuelle: questions, ressources et implications pour l'approvisionnement en eau en milieu rural au niveau opérationnel

From 6 to 26 April 2020, RWSN and the Water Institute of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ran this e-discussion organised and moderated by Michael Fisher (UNC), Nikki Behnke (UNC), Sean Furey (RWSN) and Sandra Fürst (RWSN). The present document summarizes the contributions by 42 participants received during this e-discussion. Weekly summaries were prepared by Michael Fisher (UNC), Emma Kelly (UNC), and Abby McNaughton (UNC), and form the basis of this overall summary. | »

Rural Water Supplies and Sanitation An update and compilation of research activities in support of Zimbabwe’s rural water supply and sanitation program

This handbook covers the design and construction of water supplies which are useful in the rural areas of Zimbabwe and also a range of toilet options which are also suitable. | »

SWIFT water ATMs: experience and impact in Turkana and Wajir counties of Kenya SWIFT Consortium learning brief

Working in governance and resilience-oriented WASH programming in Kenya, Oxfam has supported communities in Turkana and Wajir counties to pilot the use of pre-paid water metering systems, also called water ATMs. These ATMs improve service and accountability using technology, revolutionising the system and providing substantial benefits to both water service providers and community water users. | »

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