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Pastoral Water Development in Chad / Secteur de l’hydraulique pastorale au Tchad Evaluation of AFD Interventions over the last 20 years / Evaluation et capitalisation de 20 ans d’interventions de l’AFD

In 2012 the Evaluation Division of AFD’s Research Department decided to evaluate and follow up 20 years of AFD Group interventions in the pastoral water sector in Chad. This exercise, which covered 11 projects implemented in three areas of Chad between 1993 and 2013, was driven by the need for a global analysis that would help the agency build on 20 successive years of support – going beyond previous evaluation exercises undertaken in 2004, 2010 and 2012. Its three objectives were to: i) evaluate the overall relevance and coherence of AFD Group, interventions; ii) assess the performance of pastoral water projects; iii) propose strategies for continuing the process (with significant changes) or gradually winding it down.

En 2012, la division Évaluation du département de la Recherche de l’AFD décide de lancer une « Évaluation et capitalisation de 20 ans d’interventions de l’AFD, portant sur le secteur de l’hydraulique pastorale au Tchad ». Le champ de l’exercice recouvre onze projets mis en oeuvre dans trois zones du Tchad, de 1993 à nos jours. La justification repose sur la nécessité d’une analyse et capitalisation globales de ces vingt années successives d’appui – allant au-delà des précédents exercices d’évaluations (2004, 2010, 2012).

Stop the rot: handpump functionality, corrosion, component quality and supply chains Action research in sub-Saharan Africa

The 'Stop the Rot' initiative documents the scale and extent of rapid handpump corrosion and the use of poor-quality handpump components in sub-Saharan Africa and tries to bring about actions to address these problems. These two interlinked issues contribute to poor handpump performance, rapid handpump failure and poor water quality, all of which can ultimately lead to abandonment of the handpump sources, thus forcing users to return to contaminated or distant water supplies.

The first report estimates the reliance on handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa, reviews the literature on handpump functionality and performance, and synthesises information on handpump technical quality from various studies and assessments.

The second report examines handpump corrosion in detail, with an overview of what is known and what has been done to address the issue in specific SSA countries and by select organisations.

The third report reflects on the existing guidance on handpump quality assurance, collates examples of poor-quality components, and examines handpump supply chains through a case study of Zambia.

Global prospects to deliver safe drinking water services for 100 million rural people by 2030 REACH working paper 12

The climate crisis and global pandemic have accelerated the urgency of providing safe
drinking water services around the world. Global progress to safe drinking water is
off-track with uncertain and limited data on the extent and performance of rural water
service providers to inform policy and investment decisions. This report documents
a global diagnostic survey to evaluate the status and prospects of rural water service
providers from 68 countries. The service providers describe providing drinking water
services to a population of around 15 million people through over 3 million waterpoints.

The data provides information on the scale and sustainability of rural water services to
• The extent and type of professional water service provision in rural areas globally;
• Self-reported metrics of operational and financial performance; and,
• The size and scope of current rural service providers that could transition to resultsbased

Five major findings emerge. First, most service providers aim to repair broken
infrastructure in three days or less. Second, almost all service providers reported at least
one type of water safety activity. Third, most service providers collect payments for water
services. Fourth, about one third of service providers reported major negative shocks to
their operations from the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifth, non-governmental service providers
in low income countries less often report receiving subsidies for operations, and more
often report paying part of user fees to government, including through taxes.
Most rural water service providers are working towards provision of affordable, safe and
reliable drinking water services. Key barriers to progress include sustainable funding
and delivery of services at scale. We propose four conditions to promote scale and
sustainability based on policy alignment, public finance, professional service delivery,
and verifiable data. To illustrate these conditions, we consider the differing context and
service delivery approaches in the Central African Republic and Bangladesh. We conclude
by identifying a group of 77 service providers delivering water services for about 5 million
people in 28 countries. These 77 service providers report operational metrics consistent
with a results-based contracting approach. Technical assistance might support many
more to progress. We argue that government support and investment is needed to
rapidly progress to the scale of 100 million people to provide evidence of pathways to
universal drinking water services for billions more.

L’impact des forage manuels sur la réalisation de points d’eau durables au Tchad

Cette étude examine l’impact des intervention de forages manuels sur l’amélioration du taux d’accès a l’eau potable au Tchad.


The present study aims to give a general idea and it is extend to the whole country; the results of this study must be used to target specific ares where more detailed analysis are required in order to have a detailed idea of the best strategy and location to support manual drilling.

It takes into consideration the methods and results achieved in a previous study carried out during 2006 (GIS ANALISYS OF EXISTING HYDROGEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND MAP PRODUCTION AS A SUPPORT FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF SUITABLE AREA FOR MANUAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES IN UNICEF WATER PROGRAMME IN TCHAD) that focused its attention to 5 regions (Mayo Kebbi, Tandjile, Kanem, Ouaddai, Guera, Batha, Hadjer-Lamis), extending the analysis to the whole country and modifying some of the assumptions on the basis of the direct experience of manual drilling impelement by UNICEF after 2006 in Chad

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