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Rehabilitation of Drinking Water Wells in Coastal Orissa

The Danida assisted Orissa Drinking Water Supply Project started in August 1985 with the
intention of constructing 10,500 tubewells in 20 blocks of coastal Orissa. By 1991, about 4500
hand pumps had been installed on tube wells in 12 blocks of the project area.
The Functionality Study of Hand Pumps in the project of November 1987 indicated that a
significant number of pumps were wholly or partially rejected by users. Subsequently, a series
of technical studies established that water quality from wells in the project area had
deteriorated with time, that well construction quality needed to be improved and there was need
to develop a clearer understanding of hydro-geological and hydrochemical phenomena in the
project area before further large scale well construction could resume.
However, the question of rehabilitation of 4500 wells already constructed needed a different
approach. Little experience was available on remediation techniques for such a large scale and
geographically dispersed water supply programme. The problem was further compounded by
the deltaic conditions of coastal Orissa.
Though well rehabilitation specifications and guide lines are available, for restoration of
decreased yields, the problem was complicated as 90% of the wells identified for rehabilitation
were on the basis of quality deterioration.
After some inconclusive trials in one block during 1989-90, the project undertook its
Experimental Rehabilitation Programme on 47 wells in one block in 1991, followed by the Pilot
Rehabilitation Programme on 87 wells in 1991-92, spread over four blocks with a wider range
of rehabilitation problems. These programmes led to the development of a logical evaluation
procedure of rehabilitation results and set the direction for the regular rehabilitation
Implementation Programme of the project. By the latter part of 1993 results of rehabilitation of
about 900 wells were available.
This paper presents the results of the rehabilitation programme. It examines the results on the
basis of a range of criteria such as geographical area, depth ranges of wells and methods of
well cleaning. The results are also classified into four degrees of success of rehabilitation, from
Fully Successful, to Partially, Doubtful and Not Successful.
The results of data analysis leads to a conclusion that rehabilitation was fully successful in 28%
and 45% wells in the Experimental & Pilot Programmes and the Implementation Programme
respectively. Similarly, rehabilitation failed in 47% to 22% wells in the respective programmes.
These conclusions raise serious doubts about the long term viability and sustainability of a rural
drinking water supply programme based on ground water and tubewells in coastal Orissa.

A Recent History of Rural Drinking Water Supply in India By Tube Wells & Hand Pumps & Some Perspectives

A short history of the development of the India Mark II handpump in India.

Halte aux dégradations : Recherche-action sur la corrosion et la qualité des composants des pompes à motricité humaine en Afrique subsaharienne Recherche en Afrique sub-saharienne

Cette initiative vise à étudier l'ampleur et l'étendue de la corrosion rapide des pompes à motricité humaine en Afrique subsaharienne, à documenter les problèmes de qualité de leurs composants et à mieux comprend re les chaînes d'approvisionnement des pompes à motricité humaine y compris les mécanismes d'assurance qualité. En impliquant et en informant les parties prenantes dès le début de la recherche, l'initiative a tenté de catalyser l'action aux niveaux mondia l et national pour réduire l'incidence de la corrosion rapide des pompes à motricité humaine et améliorer la qualité de leurs composants.

Le premier rapport estime la dépendance aux pompes à motricité humaine en Afrique subsaharienne, examine la littérature sur la fonctionnalité et la performance des pompes à main et synthétise les informations sur la qualité technique des pompes à motricité humaine provenant de diverses études et évaluations.

Les rapports II et III de l'initiative Halte aux dégradations rassemblent les preuves de corrosion rapide des pompes à motricité humaine et de mauvaise qualité de leur s composants en Afrique subsaharienne. Dans le même temps, ce rapport conclut en exhortant les parties prenantes à se réunir et à explorer une autre question « La fonctionnalité des pompes à motrici té humaine n'est pas binaire quelles sont donc les implications pour les programmes, les projets, les services, le suivi et les évaluations »

Stop the rot: handpump functionality, corrosion, component quality and supply chains Action research in sub-Saharan Africa

The 'Stop the Rot' initiative documents the scale and extent of rapid handpump corrosion and the use of poor-quality handpump components in sub-Saharan Africa and tries to bring about actions to address these problems. These two interlinked issues contribute to poor handpump performance, rapid handpump failure and poor water quality, all of which can ultimately lead to abandonment of the handpump sources, thus forcing users to return to contaminated or distant water supplies.

The first report estimates the reliance on handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa, reviews the literature on handpump functionality and performance, and synthesises information on handpump technical quality from various studies and assessments.

The second report examines handpump corrosion in detail, with an overview of what is known and what has been done to address the issue in specific SSA countries and by select organisations.

The third report reflects on the existing guidance on handpump quality assurance, collates examples of poor-quality components, and examines handpump supply chains through a case study of Zambia.

Global prospects to deliver safe drinking water services for 100 million rural people by 2030 REACH working paper 12

The climate crisis and global pandemic have accelerated the urgency of providing safe
drinking water services around the world. Global progress to safe drinking water is
off-track with uncertain and limited data on the extent and performance of rural water
service providers to inform policy and investment decisions. This report documents
a global diagnostic survey to evaluate the status and prospects of rural water service
providers from 68 countries. The service providers describe providing drinking water
services to a population of around 15 million people through over 3 million waterpoints.

The data provides information on the scale and sustainability of rural water services to
• The extent and type of professional water service provision in rural areas globally;
• Self-reported metrics of operational and financial performance; and,
• The size and scope of current rural service providers that could transition to resultsbased

Five major findings emerge. First, most service providers aim to repair broken
infrastructure in three days or less. Second, almost all service providers reported at least
one type of water safety activity. Third, most service providers collect payments for water
services. Fourth, about one third of service providers reported major negative shocks to
their operations from the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifth, non-governmental service providers
in low income countries less often report receiving subsidies for operations, and more
often report paying part of user fees to government, including through taxes.
Most rural water service providers are working towards provision of affordable, safe and
reliable drinking water services. Key barriers to progress include sustainable funding
and delivery of services at scale. We propose four conditions to promote scale and
sustainability based on policy alignment, public finance, professional service delivery,
and verifiable data. To illustrate these conditions, we consider the differing context and
service delivery approaches in the Central African Republic and Bangladesh. We conclude
by identifying a group of 77 service providers delivering water services for about 5 million
people in 28 countries. These 77 service providers report operational metrics consistent
with a results-based contracting approach. Technical assistance might support many
more to progress. We argue that government support and investment is needed to
rapidly progress to the scale of 100 million people to provide evidence of pathways to
universal drinking water services for billions more.

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